References 1. Recent evidence suggests that enteric microbiota may play a significant role in the development of obesity and its complications[ 2 ]. Dietary fructo-oligo-saccharides increased the proportion of bifidobacteria in the distal intestine, leading to increased colonic fermentation and glucagon-like peptide 1 GLP1 levels, and decreased food intake, fat mass, and hepatic steatosis [ 31 - 33 ].
For example, the intestinal microbiome seems to play an important role in regulating the availability of dietary choline, and choline deficiency is well-known to cause NASH with fibrosis in rodents [ 26 ].
Science While the exact pathophysiology of NAFLD remains largely unknown, changes in intestinal inflammation, gut permeability, energy harvest, anaerobic fermentation and insulin resistance have been described. Liver cancer A recent study established a link between the gut microbiota and NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma [ 21 ].
However, endotoxemia does not seem to be an absolute requirement for NASH development, as it was absent in a majority of patients in another NASH cohort [ 19 ]. Characterization of gut microbiomes in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH patients: Diabetes 52 This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Alcohol intake can lead to changes in gut microbiota composition, even before liver disease development. There are many animal and human studies of the relationships between gut microbial ecology and obesity or body weight [ 121 ].
Colonic bacteria also ferment nondigestible carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids SCFAs. Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with histologic features of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.
Thanks to these recent technological advances, knowledge about the role of gut microbiota disruption dysbiosis in gut diseases such as colon cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and irritable bowel syndrome has greatly increased, with possible new therapeutic strategies.
However, SCFAs also improve lipid and glucose metabolism and maintain intestinal homeostasis [ 1113 ]. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common complication of obesity. Changes in the composition of the diverse gut microbiota dysbiosis are associated with several clinical conditions, including obesity, autoimmune diseases, and allergies [ 14 ].
NAFLD is associated with a higher prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux [ 29 ] that requires treatment such as proton pump inhibitors or histamine receptor 2 antagonists. Toll-like receptor-4 signaling and Kupffer cells play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Intestinal microbiota, Dysbiosis, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Obesity Core tip: Trends Endocrinol Meta 13 2: Abstract The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. According to Samuel et al. More surprisingly, gut dysbiosis has been implicated in chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases [ 3 ].
Am J Clin Nutr. By using gut microbiota manipulations, recent animal studies have demonstrated direct roles for gut microbiota in each liver lesion observed in NAFLD: Circulation Microbiota changes might also alter brain function, and the gut—brain axis might be a potential target to reduce alcoholic relapse risk.
Key points Alcohol affects many organ systems, but alcoholic liver disease develops in selected patients and ranges from simple steatosis to inflammation, cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. Several genes contribute to weight gain by controlling feeding behavior, energy expenditure and metabolism, but can only partially account for the development of obesity.
Widhalm K, Ghods E Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: These alterations worsen with advancing disease and could be complicit in disease progression. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 34 3: Correspondence to: · This Review focuses on clinical studies involving the gut microbiota in patients with alcoholic liver disease across the spectrum from alcoholic fatty liver to cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis Cited by: 1.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Obesity is the most important risk factor for metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is a multifactorial disease, the incidence of which is increasing, and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood.
Various genetic, metabolic, inflammatory and environmental factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis [ 10 ].Cited by: microbiota and thereby modulate its effects on human pathophysiology.
This review provides an overview of the relationship between the gut microbiota and liver diseases in orderCited by: 2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic.
Aron-Wisnewsky J, Gaborit B, Dutour A, Clement K () Gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: new insights. Clinical microbiology and infection: the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 19 (4)–Cited by: 2.